Useful infographic from BMJ
For procedures up to (max) 2 hours duration.
Quicker recovery than bupivicaine making it suitable for day-case
3.5ml of 2% hyperbaric prilocaine +/- 20mcg fentanyl
Saddle block: 0.5 – 1.0 ml
> T10 block: 3+ ml
< T10 block: 2-3 ml
An excellent summary:
Should we still be trying to modify the dysregulated immune response in sepsis? An interesting evolutionary perspective:
Although not improving (or worsening) mortality, if steroids reduce duration of shock and length of ICU stay then they are probably worth a go, given that the absolute possible increase in risk of noteworthy adverse outcomes is very low, although this must be borne in mind. Could still argue it either way though. When we can genotype patients we may be able to identify those specific individuals in whom steroid may do significant benefit or harm. Or maybe not!
For abdominal e.g laparotomy or thoracic dermatomes e.g. thoracotomy, rib fractures
Alternative to epidural
Patient awake – sitting or prone
Identify midline (in transverse plane)
Block at level of:
- T7 level for abdominal cover, even rooftop
- T5 for thoracic cover (T2 – T9)
Scan laterally so transverse process (TP) in in middle of screen.
Rotate probe vertically to para-sagital plane
Identify layers of subcutaneous tissue, trapezius, (+/- rhomboid), erector spinae (ES)- with articulates with transverse processes
Local anaesthetic at superior entry point. Deep infiltration to level of muscle.
Use Tuohy needle or regional catheter pack needle, in plane approach
Access ESP below ES muscle, adjacent to TP. Can hit it (original description) but more painful. Create space with saline.
Then threat catheter. Leave at least 10cm in the space. Load with 20ml of 0.375% l-bupivicaine to each side.
Then run infusion 0.25% l-bupivicaine at 10ml per hour (split between both sides).
– NG @ LGH
Useful educational summary from BJA:
Perspective from The New England Journal of Medicine — What Is Value in Health Care?